1. Amenorrhea- Primary: absence of menses by age
Secondary: absence of menses for 6 months in a female with previously normal menstruation, or absence of menses for
3 normal intervals with a history of oligomenorrhea.
2. Anuria- <100 ml urine/day Foley catheter.
3. Asterixis- Flapping with wrists hyperextended.
4. Babinskis sign- stroke sole of foot,
& toes dorsiflex if pyramidal track lesion.
5. Battles sign- Ecchymoses of mastoid process; basilar
6. Brudzinki's Sign- Neck flexion causes hip & knee flexion.
Sign- Disappearance of tenderness when abdominal muscles are contracted, indicates intra-abdominal pain.
Chadwick's sign- cervix & vaginal cyanosis.
9. Chandelier Sign- Cervical motion tenderness.
10. Charcot's Sign/Triad-upper quadrant pain, jaundice, fever; gallstones.
cracked lips; Riboflavin deficiency.
12. Cheyne Stokes respiration- Periodic breathing with periods of
apnea (Elevated Intracranial Pressure)
13. Chvostek's sign- Tapping cheek results in facial spasm; hypocalcemia.
14. Colon cutoff sign- Spasm of splenic flexure with no distal colonic gas. (Abdominal X-ray).
Courvoisers Sign- Palpable non-tender gallbladder with jaundice; pancreatic or biliary malignancy.
Cullens Sign- Bluish periumbilical discoloration; peritoneal hemorrhage.
17. Cushings Triad-
Bradycardia, hypertension, abnormal respirations, ascending weakness.
18. Decerebration- Extension of
legs & arms; wrists & fingers flex with midbrain & pons functioning.
19. Decortication- Noxious
stimuli causes flexion of arms, wrists & fingers with leg extension, indicates damage to contralateral hemisphere above
20. Dupuytrens contracture- Fibrotic palmar ridge to ring finger/ Palmar contracture; cirrhosis.
21. Egophony- E to A changes.
22. Fetor Hepaticas- Odor of breath & urine caused
23. Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO)- >/= 38.3*C,(>/=101*F), undiagnosed after 1 week
of evaluation & extensive studies.
24. Free Air Under Diaphragm- Ruptured Viscus (CXR).
Glossitis- B12, folate deficiency.
26. Grey Turners Sign- Flank ecchymoses; retroperitoneal
27. Hegars sign- Softening of uterine isthmus.
28. Hepatic angle sign-
Loss of lower margin of right, lateral, liver angle (X-ray).
29. Homans Sign- Dorsiflexion of foot elicits
30. Horners syndrome- eyelid ptosis, miosis, & anhydrosis.
Sign- Elevation of legs against examiners hand causes pain; retrocecal appendicitis.
32. Jugular venous
distention- (at 45* measure perpendicular distance from the sternal angle to top of column of blood= jugular venous
pressure in cm H2O.
33. Kayser-Fleischer rings- Bronze Corneal pigmentation; Wilsons disease.
Kernigs Sign- Flexing hip & extending knee elicits resistance.
35. Kussmaul respirations-
Deep sighing breathing
36. Levines Sign - Patient describes pain with clenched fist over the sternum.
37. L4- S1 range or in the C5 to C7 disks- Most herniation occurs.
38. Menieres disease:
inner ear disorder involving a triad of symptoms of vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss.
39. Mercedes Benz Sign-
Gallstones appearing as radiolucent clefts (Abdominal X-ray).
40. Moliminial symptoms- Mid-cycle
ovulatory pain; premenstrual, increased discharge; breast tenderness, water retention, dysmenorrhea.
Lines- Narrow, arc-shaped bands of pallor in nail beds; hypoalbuminemia.
42. Murphys Sign- Right
Upper Quadrant Tenderness & Arrest of respiration secondary to pain/ Inspiratory arrest upon RUQ palpation; cholecystitis.
43. Myxedema- condition resulting from advanced hypothyroidism or thyroxine deficiency.
Normal CVP: approximately 4 to 10 cm.
45. Normal Intra Ocular Pressure: 13 to 22 mmHg
Normal PCWP: 4 to 13 mmHg.
47. Obtundation- Awake but not alert.
48. Obturator Sign-
Flexion of right thigh & external rotation of leg causes pain in pelvic appendicitis.
49. Oculocephalic reflex-
Dolls eyes maneuver, observation of eye movements in response to lateral rotation of head, no eye movements or loose
movements occurs in bihemispheric (diencephalons) lesion.
50. Oculovestibular reflex- Cold caloric maneuver,
raise head 60 degrees & irrigate ear with cold water, causes tonic deviation of eyes to irrigated ear if intact brain
stem (midbrain); If conscious, causes nystagmus, vertigo, emesis.
51. Oliguria - <20 ml/h, 400-500
52. Oslers Maneuver- Inflate cuff above systolic. If the radial artery pulse remains palpable,
the true blood pressure may be <BP by auscultation (Pseudohypertension from hardened, calcified arteries).
pH of expectorated blood- alkaline= pulmonary; acidic= GI.
nails- Distal onycholysis, separation of fingernail from nail bed.
55. Puddle Sign- Examiner
flicks over lower abdomen while auscultating for dullness with patient on all fours; detects greater than or equal to 120
56. Pulsus paradoxus- Inspiratory drop in systolic blood pressure; >18= severe attack.
Racoon's eyes- Periorbital ecchymoses; skull fracture.
58. Raynaud's Syndrome- Red, blue or
numb hands when exposed to cold.
59. Renal Bruits- high- pitched systolic & diastolic bruit just
below costal margin lateral to midline; renal artery stenosis.
60. Rhonchi- fine, high-pitched, end-inspiratory
61. Rinne test- Air conduction last longer than bone conduction when tuning fork is placed
on mastoid process.
62. Rovsing's Sign- Pressure to left colon causes referred pain at McBurneys point
63. Sentinel loop- Spasm of transverse colon (Abdominal X-ray).
SGOT/AST: Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase; peaks in 24 to 36 hours in MI.
65. SGPT/ ALT:
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase.
66. Sister Josephs Nodule- Umbilical nodule; carcinoma metastasis.
67. Spider angiomas- Arterioles with stellate red capillaries.
68. Stigmata of Liver Disease-
Umbilical venous collaterals (Caput Medusae), jaundice, spider angiomas, palmar erythema.
Unconscious but awakeable with vigorous stimulation.
70. Tactile fremitus- Increase vocal conduction
when patient says 99.
71. Terrys nails- White proximal nail beds; cirrhosis.
72. Thumb Printing-
Edema & gas of intestinal wall. (Abdominal X-ray).
73. Trousseau's sign- sign for hypercalcemia in
which carpal spasm can be elicited by compressing the upper arm and causing ischemia to the nerves distally.
TSH- T3, T3RU, T4.
75. Virchow's Triad- Immobilization, trauma, malignancy
test- lateralization of sound when tuning fork is placed on top of head.
77. Whispered pectoriloquy-
Decreased loudness of whisper during auscultation.